To describe changes in the nutritional status of nursing home residents over a period of one year and identify factors associated with a decline in nutritional status.
The maintenance of good nutritional status is important for nursing home residents. Therefore, it is essential to identify risk factors that indicate a decline in nutritional status to take early prevention steps.
Secondary data analysis of repeated cross-sectional studies.
Data collection was performed between 2009 - 2013 using the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems questionnaire. Data from three purposively selected nursing homes that included 157 residents were analyzed.
The comparison between baseline data and data collected one year later showed that the nutritional status declined in 22.8% of the residents and improved in 6.5% of the cases. The BMI and changes in the BMI were significantly different between residents with stable/improved and declined nutritional status. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that care dependency, length of stay, changes in BMI and malnutrition risk at baseline were significantly associated with a decline in nutritional status.
This study showed that the baseline risk of malnutrition is the most important risk factor indicating a decline in nutritional status. Therefore, health care professionals should identify the malnutrition risk and take action as early as possible.
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